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Webu Sayadaw Insight meditation
Written by Dr U Than Sein   
Sunday, 18 November 2007

txufjrefrmjynf rEÅav;wdkif; ausmufqnfjrdKY a0bl7yfrS?

aus;Zl;awmf&Sif a0blq&mawmf t&Sifjrwf

0dyóemw&m;

 

 

ed'gef;

        ]&[EÅm} [k jrefjynfwvTm; xif&Sm;ausmfMum;í? a0;7yfa'o rSy&dowfrsm; ysm;yef;cwfrQ? aeYnrvyf rjywfpD;um 0wfwGm; aumfa&mf zl;ajr§mfouúm, qnf;uyfukd; uG,f jcif;ukd cHawmfrljyD;? w&m;a&at;tjrdKufaq;ukd tjrJrjywfwkdufauR;vsuf aeawmfrl&Sm aom? txufjrefrmjynf rEÅav;wdkif; ausmufqnfjrdKY a0bl7yfrS? aus;Zl;awmf&Sif a0blq&mawmf t&Sifjrwfonf xif&Sm; ay:xGef;í vmacsjyDwum;/

        þokdY owå0ga0ae,swkdY\ uHtm;avsmfpGm ay:aygufí/ vmawmfrlaom &[EÅm ocift&Sifjrwftm; ukd,fwkdifukd,fus tm;& yg;& zl;ajr§mf&½kHESifh auseyfESpfodrfhí aeMu&vQif? 0uúvd t&Sifjrwftm; bk&m;&Sif rdefYawmf rlonfhtwkdif; yk*¾dKvfukd zl;jrif ½kHrQESifh tusdK;rjyD;/

        xkdukd,fawmft&Sifjrwf\ avhvmokH;oyf? txyfxyf yGm;rsm; tyfaom 0dyóem w&m;awmfjrwfukd twyfodjrifatmif tm;xkwf yGm;rsm;rS zl;jrif&usdK;eyfrnfjzpf aomaMumifh trsm;a0aersm; Akdvfacs wkdY vG,fvifhwul enf;,lrSwfom; q&mawmf bk&m;\ 0dyóem w&m;ukd tm;vyfcGifh&aomtcg tvkd&Sdwkdif; qkwfqkdif;r&Sd? Munfh½SK rSwfom; tm;xkwf oGm;EkdifMu&efukdvnf; vkdtyfvSayonf/

        okdYjzpfaomaMumifh q&mawmfbk&m;\ ukd,fawmfwkdif vrf; nTef enf;jy qkdqkH;r awmfrlaom tEkomoeD pum; 0dyóem tm; xkwfykH tm;xkwfenf;rsm;ukd trsm;jynfol a0'*lwkdY MunfjzLrSwfom; 7ef þ pmtkyf ukd zwf½kHESifh em;vnfoGm;atmif a&;om;jy  qkdaytHhownf;/

 

ZdeomoeH pd&H wd|wk

a0blq&mawmf

 

0dyóemw&m;a[mawmfrlykH

(1)     0dyóemw&m;qkdwm xif&Sm;&Sdaom w&m;ukd jrifatmif ½SK&onf/

(2)     xif&Sm;&Sdaom w&m;ukd jrifatmifr½SKEkdifvQif 0dyóem rjrif/

(3)     xif&Sm;&Sdaomw&m;qkdwm tjcm;rSm oGm;í &SmrS &wmrsdK; r[kwf/ ukd,frSm&Sdaom w&m;jzpfonf/

(4)     ukd,frSm&Sdaom w&m;qkdwm xGufouf0ifoufjzpfonf/

(5)     xGufouf0ifoufqkdwm trd0rf;uarG;uwnf;u &Sdaeaom aoonf txd tjrJrjywf wvpyf&Sdaeaom w&m;oabm jzpfonf/

(6)     xGufouf0ifoufonf tvkyfvkyfae&if; pum;ajymae&if; pm;&if; ae&if; pmusufae&if; pOf;pm;ae&if;vnf;&Sdonf/ tdyfaysmfae&if;vJ &SdaewmbJjzpfonf/

(7)     xGufouf0ifoufonf tjrJrjywf &Sdaeaomfvnf; trSwfwrJh aeMuí owdrrl *lrjrif? owdrlvsif jrLukdawmif jrif&w,f qkdwmvkdyJ *½kpkdufMunfhrS &SdrSef;odMuonf/

(8)     Munfhw,fqkd&mü 0dyóemjzpfzkdY&mrSm xGufoufav 0ifouf av xd&m ESmoD;zsm;rSm &dyf&dyf? &dyf&dyfESifh xdoGm;wmukd odatmif Munfh&onf/

(9)     xdwm[m y&rwfoabm jzpfonf/ odwmu emrf oabm jzpfonf/

(10)   w&dyf&dyfESifh xdwkdif;? aysmufwkdif;? ½kyfemrfESpfyg; jzpfrIysufrIawG jzpfysufí aejcif; jzpfonf/

(11)   w&dyf&dyfESifh ESmoD;zsm;wGif xdvkdufaysmufvkduf aewm awGukdom wqufwnf;jrifatmif MunfhaevQif Mumaom tcg 0dyóem orm"dwpxufwp? wcPxufwcP wkd;wufí? tm;MuD; vmaomtcg ESmoD;zsm;rSmwGifru cE¨m ukd,frSmvnf; tvkdvkd w&dyf&dyfw&G&G jzpfvmwmawGukd awGY& wwfonf/ awGYvkdaom ae&mwGif pdwfjzifhpkdufí ½SKae vQifvnf;  w&dyf&dyf w&G&GESifhyif awGYae&wwf\/

(12)   wukd,fvkH;ü w&dyf&dyfawG w&G&GawG tpOfrjywf jzpfysuf vsuf aewmawGukd awGYívmaomtcg (tedpöondaem arCd, tewåonm oP²mwd) [laom ygVdt& tedpöukd aumif;pGm jrif&aomaMumifh tewåukd tvkdvkdxifí vmvdrfhrnf/ 0dyóem a,m*D\ tvkyfonf xdrIukd Munfh½SK ae½kHomjzpfonf/ Munf½SKae&if; odoifhod xkduf orQ ukdrlum;? tvkdvkd odí vm vdrfhrnf/

(13)   þuJhokdY w&dyf&dyfESifh xdrIwkdYukd Munfh½SKae&if; r*fÓPf zkdvfÓPf jzpfívmonf&Sdaomf odomvSyg\/ tb,fokdY od& rnfenf; [lrl? a&iwfí aeaomolonf a&ukd aomuf& onf&Sdaomf a&iwfajyvm\/

(14)   r*fÓPfzkdvfÓPfukd &jyD;a&mufjyD;í zvormywfukd 0ifpm; vkd vQif rdrdvmbl;aom vrf;ukd jyefíMunfh&\/

(15)   þtwkdif;jzpfcsifvQif w&dyf&dyfESifh xdrIwkdYukdom Munfh½Iíae? axGumvDumawGukd vkdufí vkyfraeESifh/

        þtxufygqkH;rcsuf (15) csuftwkdif; aus;Zl;&Sif a0blq&mawmf&m;MuD;u? Mo0g' ay;oem;awmfrlaom 0dyóemenf;rSm tusOf; oacFyrQom jzpf\/

        tus,f0dw¬m&vlwkdif;em;vnfí zwf½kHESifh tm;xkwf wwf atmif a&;jy&efrlum; atmufygtwkdif; jzpfyg\/ atmufygtwkdif; aocsmpGm zwfMunfhvQifrlum; vlwkdif;em;vnfí vG,fvG,fululESifh r*fzkdvfukd &atmif tm;xkwfEkdifygonf/

 

 

tm;xkwfykHtus,frSm

        w&m;tm;xkwfrnfMuHvQif a&S;OD;pGm bk&m;w&m;oHCm&wem okH;yg; q&m rdbwkdYtm; &Sdckd;uefawmh ig;yg;oDvjzpfap? &Spfyg; q,fyg; ponfwkdYukd jzpfap? MudKufovkd cH,laqmufwnfyg/ jyD;vQif a0blq&mawmf rS pí t&d,mt&Sifjrwfrsm;? Omoemawmf apmifh ewfrsm;? okH;q,fwpfbkH&Sd vl-ewfjA[®m owå0gtaygif;tm; trQa0 arwåmykdY om"kac:? rjypfrSm;tyfaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;tm; jypfrSm; usL;vGefrdwm&Sdu cGifhvTwf auseyfMuyg&ef? &Sdckd;í awmif;yef? rdrdtm; uJh&JY jypfrSm;bl;aom olrsm; &Sduvnf; auseyf pGmcGifhvTwfyg\[k? qkd jyD;vQif? jrwfpGmbk&m;xHwGif ur®|mef;ay; oem;awmf rl yg bk&m; [k ½kdao av;jrwfpGm awmif;/ a0bl q&mawmfbk&m;tm;vnf; pdwfu &nfrSef; &Sdckd;í 0dyóem ur®|mef; awmif;vQif omíaumif;ygonf/ 0dyóem ur®|mef; awmif;jyD; vQif atmufwGif azmfjyonfhtwkdif; tm;xkwfygav/

        xkH;pHtwkdif;toufukd½SKMunfh/ xGufav0ifavonf ESmoD;zsm; xdíoGm;wmukd awGYvdrfhrnf/ rawGYvQif xkH;pHtwkdif;xuf eJeJykdí jyif;jyif;av;av;½SKMunfh/ xGufav 0ifav xdoifhwJhae&mwGif xdrSef; odí vmvdrfhrnf/ xdrSef;odvQif xdwJhae&mrSm pdwfukd xm;vQuf xGufav xGufwkdif;? 0ifav 0ifwkdif;? owdrvpfatmif *½kpkdufí xdwm ukd odatmif pdwfjzifh ½SKíae? xdwJhae&mwGif &dyf&dyf &dyf&dyf ESifh wkd;xdí aewmawGukd odí aevdrfhrnf/

        wpfcgw&H xGufav0ifavxd&m ae&mrS pdwfonf wjcm;okdY a&mufí oGm;wwf onf/ a&mufoGm;rSef;odvQif xGufav0ifav xd&m ae&mrSm pdwfukdjyefíxm;/ xGufav xGufwkdif? 0ifav0ifwkdif;? w&dyf&dyf ESifh xdwmukdom wqufwnf; odí aevm&rnf/ þokdY w&dyf&dyfESifh xdrSef;odí ae&jcif;onf y&rwf ½kyfemrfwkdYukd 0dyóem ½SKí aeonf [k ac:onf/

        tb,faMumifhqkdaomf w&dyf&dyfESifh xdawGY&wJhoabmuav; onf y&rwf azm|AÁ ½kyf jzpfonf/ odwJhoabmonf emrfw&m; jzpfonf/ cE¨mzGJYaomf xdrIoabmonf Mud,m uav; onf ½lyu©E¨m jzpfonf/ xdwJhoabmaMumifh cHvkdYaumif;wJhoabm? cHvkdY raumif; wJhoabm? aumif;onfvnf;r[kwf? raumif;onfvnf;r[kwf aomoabmudk a0' emu©E¨m [k ac:onf/ rSwfwwfwJh oabmukd onmu©E¨m [k ac: onf/ tm;xkwfrI apwemoabm ponfwkdYukd ocFg&u©E¨m [kac:onf/ odwJhoabm ukd 0dnmPu©E¨m [k ac:onf/ xkdYaMumifh xdrIjzpfaom Mud,moabm &dyf&dyf&dyf&dyfaerI wkdYukd ½SKMunfhí ae&jcif; onf y&rwf emrf½kyf jzpfysuftppfukd ½SKae&aom r[m0dyóemtppf[k usrf;*efwGif rdefYqkdyg&Sd\/

0dyóem0dN*dK[f

ynwåð XaywGm tedpöm'dtmuma&e 0d0d"H yówDwd 0dyóem

teuf/ /ynwåð? ynwftm½kHukd? XaywGm? MuOfxm;í? 0g? *½k rpkdufbJ Oayu©mjyKvsuf? tedpöm'dtmuma&e? y&rw¬ obm0 jzpfaom tedpöponfwkd\ tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh? 0d0d"H? txl;xl; tjym;jym;? yówd? ½SKrSwf\/ £wdwo®m? xkdYaMumifh? 0dyóem? 0dyóem rnf\/

t"dyÜg,frSm/    /0dyóem tppfqkdwm y&rw¬obm0jzpfaom Mud,m trlt&mwkdY\ ypöKyÜef rsufarSmufü jzpfysufaerItp&SdonfwkdYukd omvQif Munfh½SKíaejcif;ukdom 0dyóem tppf jzpf onf[lí jzpf\/

        xkdYaMumifh xGufav0ifavwkdYjzifh w&dyf&dyfESifh xdvsuf aerI wkdYukd omvQif txl; *½kpkduf ½SKygav/ xdrIrSwyg;vGJí bmukdrS *½krpkdufygESifh/

        þodkY xGufav0ifavwkdYjzifh xdxdaeaom &dyf&dyfESifhxdawGY uav;awGukd ½SKaejcif; onf tavhtusifhrsm;í vmonf&Sdaomf ESmoD;zsm;wGif xGufav0ifavwkdYjzifh xdíod&aom tod rsdK;xuf ykdí xGufav0ifav rxdEkdifaomcE¨mukd,fwpfae&m&müvnf; a&yGuf uav; awG? rkdCf;aygufuav;awG ESif;aygufuav;awG tyfzsm; uav;awGwkdYESifh xdawGY ae& ouJhokdYvnf; xkdufoifhovkd awGYí vmwwf\/

        xkdokdYaom xdawGYrIMud,moabmuav; onfvnf; ½SKvkdvQif y&rwf ½kyf oabm uav;awGyif jzpfaomaMumifh ½SKMunfhvQif ½SKMunfhEkdif\/ okdY&mwGif tawGYenf;aomtcgü ESmoD;zsm; ü awGYaom xdawGYrIukd omvQif qufí ½SKumwmu omíaumif\/ orm"dtm; aumif; vmvQifrlum; cE¨mukd,fwGif xdawGYrIwkdYonf ykdírsm;jym;pGm awGYvmwwf\/

        cE¨mukd,fwGif xdawGYrIwkdYonf rsm;ívmaomtcgwGif rsm;aom ae&mwGif vkdufí ½SKvkdvQif ½SKrSwfEkdif\/ vkdufí ½SKaomtcg ykdívnf; rsm;rsm;awGYvmwwf\/ avsmhenf; ívnf; aysmufaysmuf oGm;wwf\/ ykdíawGYvQif qufíom ½SKygav/ avsmhí aysmufysufí oGm;ygvQifrl um; rlv&Sd&if;pGJ jzpfaom ESmoD;zsm;wGif jyefí ½SKygav/

        þ 0dyóem tvkyfonf tvkyfrsm;olrsm;? tm;vyfcGifhr& aomolrsm;yif wpfaeYvQif tdyf&m0if-tdyf&mx-wpfa&;Ekd;umvwkdYü tm;xkwf rnfqkdygu wpfaeYjzpfaom 24em&DwGif ,kwfpGtqkH; 2em&D awmh tm; xkwfcGifh&Ekdifygonf/

        u,m;jynfe,f vGdKifaumfjrdKY tmaomu&mr 0dyóemwkduf? Ak'¨omoemhtzGJYcsKyf y#dywådXmeü u,m;jynfe,f e,fole,fom;rsm; rSm aeYtcg y&da,oeudpöwkdYukd aqmif&Guf &í nnrS wpfnvQif wpfem&D-ESpfem&DuspD tm;xkwfMu&m tyg,fukd pdwfcs &avmuf atmif? atmifjrifoGm;aom a,m*Drsm; tawmfyif rsm;Mu ygonf/ okdYtwGuf tm;vyfcGifhr&aomolrsm;rSm wpfaeYvkH; &ufquf tm;vyfcGifh&vQif aeYa&mnyg qufvufí tm;xkwfMuyg&ef apwem aumif;jzifh wkduf wGef;tyfygownf;/

        txufwGif a&;om;xm;csufrsm;twkdif; vkdvkdcsifcsifESifh? t"d ywdwwfaom qE´jzifh tm;xkwfMurnfqkdvQif ESmoD;zsm;rSpí cE¨m ukd,f wpfukd,fvkH; twGif;a&m tjyifyg tyfzsm;wpfckpmrS rusefbJ xdawGY jzpfysufrIrSwpfyg;vGJí? bmukdrSrawGY rod&awmhbJ aevdrfh rnf/ xkdtcg ü jzpfysufrIukd odae½kHrSwyg; vGJí wpfpkHw&m bmukdrS awG;awmjcif;? MuHpnfjcif; rjzpfEkdifrjyKEkdifawmhay/ cE¨mukd,fMuD; ESifhwuG OD;acgif;-ajc-vuftp&Sdaom 32 aum|mo [loa&GY ukdvnf; rawGY& rod&awmh ay/

        xkdaMumifh tedpöjrifrS oEÅwd raysmufEkdif[k ynm&Sdrsm; qkd½kd; jyKMu jcif;jzpfonf/ usrf;*efwGifvnf; tedpöjrifvQif tewåxif[lí ygVdawmfü &Sdayonf/ &SdykHrSm -

                 tedpöondaem arCd, tewåonm oP²mwd-[ljzpf\

teufrSm/      /arCd,-cspfom;arCd,/ tedpöondaem-tedpö onm xifvmonf&Sdaomf? tewåonm-tewå[k xifvmrIonf? oP²mwd-tvkdvkdwnfvm\/

t"dyÜg,frSm/    /tedpöukd jrifvmvQif tewårSm tvkdvkdxifvmyg\ [líjzpf\/ xifvmwwfykHrSm vufOD;tp? O',AÁ,ÓPfü jzpfysufrI wkdYonf olYoabmolaqmifí jzpfysufaeMuojzifh t0o0wåe oabm wnf;[laom tpkd;r&rI tewåonf 0dyóem a,m*D\ÓPfü tvkdvkd wnfvm\/

        xkdYaemuf jzpfysufrIawG tm;MuD;½kHrQru tysufawGukdcsnf; jrif awGYae&aom b*FÓPfokdY aumif;pGma&mufaomtcg tysuf awGcsnf; jrif&ojzifh wpkHw&m ykHoP²mef wnf;[laom ynwf edrdwfwkdYukd tvQif;rawGY&awmhay/ ynwfedrdwfukd tvsif; rawGY&aom tcg ukd,f t*Fgtpdwftykdif;wnf;[laom 32 aum|mowkdYonf tvsif;r&Sday/

        þokdY ynwfedrdwf[lu tEkjrLrQ rawGY&awmhbJ xdawGYrI y&rwftrlt&m Mud,moabmrQ - wkdYukdom&IjrifvQufae&jcif;uk?d oknw oabm jzpfaom? tewåm? igr[kwf? igukd,f r[kwf? a,mufsm; rdef;r vl ewf jA[®m owå0gr[kwf? tykHtpk MuD;i,f wkd&Snf txnfj'yf tp&Sdaom tpktykH ykHo@mef oEÅw Ce [lu jrLrQ r&Sd ygwum; [laom oknw tewåÓPftjrifukd 0dyóema,m*Donf tvkdvdk odem;vnf vmwwf aomaMumifh? &[EÅmt&Sif a0blq&mawmf ocifu axGumvDumawG vkdufí vkyfraeeYJ? jzpfysuf ukdomvQif ½Iae/ olYae&musvQif olYbmomol jrifoifh jrifxkduf wmawGukd jrifíawGYí vm&vdrfhrnf [k rdefYjrGuf awmfrljcif; jzpf\/

        oknwtewåukd xifaomtcg tb,faMumifh o@mefoEÅwd tp&Sdaom Ce[lu jrLrQr&Sd&oenf;[lrl y&rwfjzpfaom trlt&m Mud,moabm oufoufukdcsnf; awGYíae&aomaMumifh[lí ajz& rnf/

y&rwfrnfonf ykHoP²mefrS uif;\

oaAÁyd y&rw¬"r®emr? oAÁaom oP²me&[dwm a[mEÅd/ tmum&0dum&ud&d,rwåm{0 tPkrawåyd oP²mae 'dórmae wo®ð 0w¬Ko®ð taeumy&rw¬"r®m y0wåEÅd/ (okwåedygw t|uxm)

teuf/         /oaAÁyd? tvkH;pkHvnf;jzpfukefaom? y&rw¬"r®emr? y&rwfw&m; rnfonfum;? oAÁaom? tjcif;cyfodrf;? oP²m&[dwm? ykHoP²mefrS uif;ukefonf? a[mEÅd? jzpfukef\/ tmum&0dum&-ud&d,rwåm{0? tjcif;t&m trlt&m Mud,m oabm rQonfomvQif wnf;/ tPkrawåyd? tEkjrLrQvnf;jzpfaom? oP²mae? ykHoP²mef onf/'dórmae?xifjrif onf &Sdaomf? wo®ð 0w¬Ko®ð? xkdtEkjrLrQ txnf j'yfxifaom xkd0w¬K ü/ taeum y&rw¬"r®m? wyg; ru rsm;vSaom y&rwfwkdYonf/ y0wåEÅd? jzpfMu ukef\/

t"dyÜg,frSm/    /y&rwfqkdwm trlt&mMud,mrQom jzpfaomaMumifh ykHoP²mefrS vkH;0uif;\/ oP²mefj'yf [lí tEkjrLrQr&Sd/ xkdYaMumifh a0blq&mawmfuvnf; trlt&m Mud,m rQ jzpfaom w&dyf&dyfESifh xdrIukd omvQif ½SKíae&rnf[k rdefYawmfrljcif;jzpf\/

        txufwGifa&;om;jyocJhonfhtwkdif;? y&rwftedpötppfukd trSefjrif&aom b*FÓPf okdY a&mufaom tcg rdrd\ cE¨ukd,fMuD;ESifhwuG twGif;ty &SdorQ ypönf;? om;orD;? om; r,m;? aqGrsdK;Ówum? t&m&m [lorQwkdYukd cifrifwG,fwm om,mrI uif; vsuf 31bkHrS vGwf ajrmufvkdaom pdwfrsdK; tvkdvkdwkd;yGm; rsm;jym;vsuf vmawmh\/

        avmuMuD;ukd ysif;rkef;jiD;aiGYvsuf aeawmh\/ avmuMuD;rS tvsiftjref vGwfajrmuf &ef b,fvkd vkyf&vQif aumif;ygrnfenf;[k MuHpnftm;xkwfvsuf aewwf\/ xkdtcgwGif w&m; ukd MudK;pm; tm;xkwf vsuf wqufwnf; aeoGm; jcif;onfomvsif aumif;jrwf jcif;ygaywum;[k todw&m;awG 0if vm wwfawmh\/

        þtodw&m;rsdL; 0ifvmpOftcg q&morm;? oDwif;okH;abmf tp&Sdaom uvsmP rdwå rsm;u tm;wufp&m a[majymjyoí ay;wwf ygvQif wquf wnf;aygufajrmufatmif tm; xkwfí oGm;wwfMu\/  þokdY 0dyóem tppfw&m;ukd trSef jrif vm aomtcg avmu MuD;ukd ysif;rkef;jiD;aiGYvsuf avmuMuD;rS vGwf ajrmuf atmif [k qufí½IoGm;vQif? vGwf ajrmuf íoGm;EkdifaMumif; udk usrf;*ef wGifvnf;&Sd\/ &SdykHrSm

  or®m yóH edAÁdE´wd? edAÁdE´H 0d&ZÆwd? 0d&m*g 0drkpöwd? 0drkwåo®ð 0drkwårSDwd ÓPH a[mwd/

teuf/   /or®myóH? ½kyfemrfESpfwef jzpfysuf[efukd trSefjrif onf &Sdaomf? edAÁdE´wd? avmuD pnf;pdrf &dyfjidrfcsrf;om oHa,mZOftjzm jzmwkdYESifhwuG? rdrdukd,fukdESifh toufukdyg wG,fwm uyfjid pdwfr&SdbJ jiD;aiGYom ae&Smawmh\/ edAÁdE´H? ESpfoufarGYavQmf &Tifraysmfí jiD;aiGY onf &Sdaomf? 0d&ZÆwd? ypönf;Opöm &wema&TaiG qefa&pyg; om;r,m; ponf wkdYukdvnf; tmom jywf&Sif; wyfESpfoufjcif;uif;í aeawmh\/ 0d&m*g? wyfESpf oufjcif;tvsOf;r&Sd? tjrpfygwdwd jywfonf&Sdaomf/ 0drkpöwd? udavomumr 0dbm*paom 0#fokH;yg;rS vkH;0vGwf ajrmuf &onf&Sdaomf/ 0drkwåo®ð? oHo&ma&; vmrnfhab;rS vGwf ajrmuf &onf &Sdaomf/ t[H? cE¨memrf½kyf ac:orkwfonfh tuREkfyfonf/ 0drkwåH? cyfodrf; OókH vkH;pkH'ku© tyg,paom ab; b,wkdYrS rkcs{uef trSef vGwf&ayrnf/ trSd? pdwfESvkH;ukd 'kH;'kH;csí od&ygayjyDwum;/ £wd? þokdY at;jrcsrf;om vGwfMunfompGm? ÓPH? ypöa0u©PmÓPf qifjcifjyefonf/ a[mwd? rkcsraoG jzpf&av\/

t"dyÜg,frSm/    /y&rwf 0dyóemÓPf tppftrSefukd awGYjrifod&Sd& onf &Sdaomf jiD;aiGYjrJ "r®wm jzpf\? jiD;aiGYvQif vGwfajrmufatmif MudK; pm; tm;xkwf\/ MudK;pm;tm;xkwfvQif r*fÓPf zkdvfÓPf&í tyg,f ab;rSvGwfajrmuf&\/ vGwfajrmufrSef;odvQif pdwfcsvufcs 0rf; om pGm ae&\/ t&[wår*fzkdvfukd &vQifrlum; ajymzG,f&m r&SdawmhjyD/

        0dyóemÓPfukd tppftrSeftwkdif; jrifonfqkdwm y&rwf ½kyfemrfwkdY\ vu©Pm a&;okH;yg; jzpfaom tedpö?'ku©? tewåvu©Pm wkdYukd trSeftwkdif; jrif&jcif;ukd ac:\/ xkd vu©Pma&; okH;yg;wkdYwGif vnf; tedpöukd odbkYd&mom vkd&if;jzpf\/ tedpöukd od&vQif 'ku© ESifh tewåvnf; tpOftwkdif; tvkdvkd odívm&awmh\? usrf;*efwGifvnf; þ twkdif;yif yg&Sd\/

0dyóemwGif tedpöonf vkd&if;y"me

0daooawm ye  £ro®ð ÓaP tedpövu©Pm 'óear0 y"meH wo®ð 'da|a,0 £w&med uare 'd|med a[mEÅd/ (y&rw¬ 'DyeD#Dum)

teuf/ /0daooawm? txl;tm;jzifhum;/ £ro®ð ÓaP? þ0dyóemÓPf ynm t&mü/ tedpövu©P'óear0y"meH? tedpö vu©Pmukd jrif&jcif;onfomvQif/ y"meH? vkd&if;jzpfaom y"mew&m; onf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ wo®ð? xkdtedpövu©Pmukd? 'da|a,0? jrif& onf&SdaomfomvQif/ £w&med? þtedpörS MuGif;usefaom vu©Pma&; wkdYukdvnf;/ uare? tpOftwkdif;tm;jzifh/ 'd|med? jriftyfukefonf/ a[mEÅd? jzpfukef\/

t"dyÜg,frSm/    /0dyóemt&mwGif a&S;OD;pGm tedpöukdomvQif odzkdY&m ta&;MuD;\/ tedpö ukdod&vQif usefaom vu©Pma&;ponfwkdYukd tpOftwkdif; tvkdvkdodí vmvdrfhrnf[lí jzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifhvnf; tedpöukd jrif&vQif r*fav;yg;ESifh avsmf\[k y#dorÇd'gygVdawmfü a[mawmfrljcif; jzpf\/ a[mawmfrlykHrSm? 

tedpöukd jrifvQif r*fav;yg;ESifhavsmf\

bdu©a0? cspfom;wkdY/ 0w? pifppfaomfum;/ aom bdu©K? xkd &[ef;onf/ oAÁocFga&? tvkH; pkHaom ocFg&w&m;wkdYukd/ tedpöawm? tedpötm;jzifh/ tEkyóaEÅm? ½SKjrifíae&onf&Sdaomf/ tEkavmrdum,? r*fav;weftm; &jcif;iSmavsmfaom? cEÅD,m? 0dyóem ÓPfESifh/ orÜEé*awm? jynfhpkHonf/ b0dówd? jzpfvwHh/

t"dyÜg,frSm/    / tedpöukd aumif;pGmjrifEkdifvQif r*fav;wef zkdvfav;yg; ukd &Ekdifaom t&nf tcsif; &SdjyD[lí jzpf\/ þrQavmuf tedpö0dyóem ÓPfonf tusdK;MuD;\/ tedpö0dyóem ÓPf wGifvnf; b*FÓPfukd tvGeftm;MuD;aomÓPfjzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifh b*FÓPfukd  Av0 0dyóemÓPf[k ac:&\/

        Av00dyóemÓPfukd a&mufíaeaom 0dyóema,m*D onf b,fvkdtcsdeftcg? ae&m? £&d,mykwfwkdYürqkd r*fÓPfukd &EkdifaMumif;? r&Ekdif[k rqkdtyfaMumif; usrf;*efwGif yg&Sd\/ yg&SdykHrSm --

,ó o'¨g Av0wD 0dyóem p tm&'¨g tm&'¨g wó *päEÅó wd|EÅó edoD'EÅó edyÜZÆEÅó cg'EÅó bkÍÆEÅó r*¾zvy#da0"m emr ew¬Dwd e a[mwd/

teuf/   /,ó? tMuif 0dyóemAv0ÓPf&Sdaom a,m*Dtm;? o'¨gp? ,kHMunf jcif;onfvnf;/ Av0wD? tm;&Sdvmonf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ 0dyóemp? 0dyóemukdvnf;/ tm&'¨g? tywfwukwf tm; xkwf\/ wó? xkda,m*Dtm;/ *päEÅó? oGm;aepOf/ wd|EÅó? &yfaepOf/ edoD'EÅó? xkdifaepOf/ edyÜZÆEÅó? avsmif;aepOf/ cg'EÅó? vSJaepOf/ bkÍÆEÅó? pm;aepOf/ r*¾zvy#da0"m emr? r*fzkdvfw&m;ukd xkd;xGif;í odjcif;rnfonf/ ew¬d? r&SdEkdifygbl;[lí/ e a[mwd? rjzpf/

t"dyÜg,frSm/    /0dyóemb*FÓPf a&mufvmvQif 0dyóemtm;&SdjyD jzpfí ,kHMunfjcif;? quf vufwkd;wufí tm;xkwfvkdjcif;? tp&Sdaom Av00dyóem t*FgwkdYESifh jynfhpkHívmawmh\/ xkdAv0 0dyóem ÓPf okdY a&mufaepOfwGifrlum; þ0dyóema,m*Donf ,ckvkdtcg r*fÓPf zkdvfÓPfukd r&Ekdifao;yg[k rxifaumif;ay/

        þÓPfokdYa&mufvmvQif tcsdeftcgae&m £&d,mykxfwkdYukdra&G;bJ? oGm;aepOf aomf vnf;aumif;? &yfaepOfaomfvnf;aumif;? xkdifae-xae-pm;ae-aomufaepOf aomfvnf; aumif;? r*fÓPf zkdvfÓPf wkdY ukd &EkdifayjyD;[lí jzpf\/

        xdkYaMumifh txufu a&;jycJhjyD;onfhtwkdif; b*FÓPfa&mufí tedpöukd tjrif tm;MuD;jyD; oknw tewåukd xifvmaoma,m*Donf Av00dyóemÓPfokdY a&muf aejyDjzpfí ,kwfpGtqkH; wr*fwzkdvfukd &onftxd qufvufvsuf tm;wufoa&m tm; xkwf oifh vS ygaMumif; wkdufwGef;vkdufygonf/

 

tm;xkwfykHrSm/  /Av0 0dyóemÓPfokdY a&mufí tedpö- 'kuö-tewå vu©Pm a&; okH;yg; wkdYukd aumif;pGm ½Ijrifae&aomtcg r*fÓPfzkdvf ÓPfokdY a&muf&ef 0dyóemtm; jynfh0 vmvQif r*fÓPfzkdvfÓPfokdY a&mufíoGm;wwf\/

        taMumif;rjynfpkHao;vQifrlum;? ½Ijrifae&aom0dyóemÓPfonfwjznf;jznf; t&Sdef avsmhí ajyaysmuf oGm;wwf\/ ajyaysmufoGm; aomfvnf; £&d,mykxfukd jyifvsuf quf vufí jzpfysufukdyif wzef jyefí tm;xkwfoGm;vQif rMumrDyif Av00dyóemÓPfokdY a&mufjrJ wkdif;yif a&mufíoGm;wwf\/

        Av0 0dyóemÓPfokdY a&mufvQif tedrdwå-tyÜPD[dw-oknwwkdYwGif wpfyg;yg; ukdvnf; a&mufoGm;wwfawmh\/ y#docFg-ÓPf? ocFg½kayu©mÓPfwkdYokdYvnf; a&muf oGm; wwf\/ xkdYaMumifh Av00dyóemÓPfa&mufvQifr*fÓPf zkdvfÓPf ukd ra&muf Ekdif ao; [k rqkdEkdifaMumif; usrf;*efwGif jyqkd jcif;jzpf\/

        ocFg½kayu©mÓPfokdYwpfBudrfa&muf½kHrQESifhvnf;? r*fÓPfzkdvf ÓPfokdY a&mufwwf onfvnf;&Sd\/ ocFg½kayu©mÓPfwkdokdY tBudrf aygif; rsm;pGma&mufNyDrSvnf; r*fÓPf zkdvf ÓPfukd &wwfonfvnf; &Sd\/ okdY&mwGif Av00dyóemÓPfukd a&mufaevQif ravsmh aom vkHYvjzifh tm;xkwfygrlum; {uefrkcs ,kwfpGtqkH; wpfr*fwpfzkdvfukd awmh &awmh rnf qkdwm aocsmNyD[lí rSwfoifhayNyD/

 

r*fÓPfzkdvfÓPfjzpfwwfykH

r*fÓPfzkdvfÓPfukd wu,f&awmhrnfh tBudrfwGif b,fvkd jzpfwwfygoenf;[lrl tedpö vu©Pm ponfwkdYukd ½Iae&if; 0dyóemtm½kH wnf;[laom ocFg&edrdwf ocFw"mwf y&rwfoabmwkdY\ tedpö paom vu©Pma&;wkdYukd t&Sdefjyif;pGm xifxif&Sm;&Sm; vsifvsif jrefjref ½Ijrifae&mrS ocFg&edrdwfr&Sd[k tocFw"mwfokdY ½kwfw&uf tm½kHjyKí oGm;wwf wmrsdK;vnf;&Sd\/

        xkdokdYr[kwfrl ocFg&edrdwf tedpövu©Pm ponfwkdYukd t&Sdef jyif;jyif; xefxef vsifvsifjrefjref jzpfysuf aeonfwkdYukd ½Ijrifae&if; wjznf;jznf; t&Sdefavsmhenf;í vmovkd jzpfvsuf jznf;nif; om,mpGm rodrom qkdovkd wpxufwp El;nHhodrfarGpGm jzpfí vm aom 0dyóem tm½kHwkdYukd vTwfvsuf jzpfjcif;? ysufjcif;? tvsif;r&Sdaom avmuDtm½kH wkdYrS vkH;0 uif;vGwfaom avmu xuf jrufaom avmukwå&medAÁmef tm½kHokdY ul;ajymif;í tm½kH oGm; wmrsdK;vnf;&Sd\/

        þokdY 0dyóemÓPfrS r*fÓPfzkdvfÓPfjzpfí edAÁmefukd rsuf arSmufjyKoGm;aomtcg b,fvkd aeygoenf;[lrl a0blq&mawmf bk&m;MuD;u rdefYMum;awmfrlonfrSm a&iwfí vm aom olonf a&ukd aomuf &ouJhokdY Oyrmjyawmfrlonf/ usrf;*efwGifrl ajy;í vm aom vlwpfa,mufonf a&ajrmif;wpfckukd þrSmbufurf;rS [kdrSmbufurf;okdY ckefí ul;oGm;EkdifouJhokdY[k Oyrmjyawmfrlonf/ xkdYjyifvnf; Oyrmaygif; rsm;pGm&Sdygonf/ tus,f ukd odvkdygrl 0dok'¨dr*f ok'G¨öd ESifhv,fwDq&mawmf bk&m;MuD;\ edAÁme'DyeDukd Munfhygav/

        0dyóemtm;xkwfoGm;&if; 0dyóema,m*Drsm;\ odjrifawGY&Sd oGm;wwfykH tus,fukd tvkd&Sdygrl vlwkdif; em;vnfvG,fatmif a&;xm; onfh uREkfyfwkdY y#dywådMuD;yGm;a&; tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0aom 0dyóemyg&*l usrf;awmfMuD;ukd zwfygav/

        0dyóema,m*Drsm;wGif okcy#dy'gç 'ku©y#dy'gç 'E¨mbdnmç cdyÜgbdnm [lí av;rsdK;av;pm;&Sd\/ okcy#dy'gyk*¾dKvf qkdonfrSm w&m;tm;xkwf&mwGif oufouf omomESifh r*fÓPfzkdvfÓPfukd &oGm; Ekdif\/ 'ku©y#dy'gyk*¾dKvfrsm;rSm yifyifyef;yef; qif&J jidKjiif pGm jzifh r*fÓPf zkdvfÓPfukd &wwf\/ cdyÜgbdnmyk*¾dKvfrSm jrefjrefyif r*fzkdvfukd & wwf \/

        okdYjzpfí oufawmifhoufom csrf;csrf;omomESihf tm;xkwf& jcif;? cufcufcJcJ qif;&J jidKjiifpGm tm;xkwf&jcif;? vQifjrefpGm &wwfjcif;? MumrS &wwfjcif;wkdYrSm rdrd\ yg&rD tavsmuf jzpf wwfaomaMumihf þ tcsufwkdYukd *½krpkdufbJ tyg,fwHcg;ydwf onf txd tm;cJí tm;xkwf Mu&ef oifhygaMumif;/

        ,ckusrf;wGif a&;jyaom a0blq&mawmfbk&m;MuD;\ 0dyóem enf;onf tmemyge enf;jzpf\/ tmemygeonf orxvnf; jzpfEkdif \? 0dyóemvnf; jzpfEkdif\? xkdYaMumihf usrf;*ef wGif orxü tmemygeukd orxtjzpf tm;xkwfenf;ukd a&;om; xm;awmfrl\/ ,ck a0blq&mawmfbk&m;MuD;\ enf;rSm 0dyóemenf; jzpfí tmemygejzifh 0dyóem vrf; twkdif;oGm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm;rSm edAÁmeftxd a&mufEkdif aMumif; usrf;*ef tukd;tum;rsm; ukd a&;jy OD;tHh/

tmemygeonf t&[wåzkdvfukd &EkdifaMumif; owdy|mef t|uxm

wwå-xkdtmemygeykdif;ü? tómoyómoy&d*¾g[dumowd? xGufouf0ifoufukd ½SKrSwf aom owd onf/ 'ku©opöH? 'ku©opömwnf;/ wóork|mydum-xkdowdukd jzpfapwwfaom? yk&drwPSm-ukokdvf uHukd jycJh&m a&S;b0umv jyD;cJhaomwPSmonf? ork',opöH? ork', opömwnf;/ ObdEéH tyÜ0wåd- 'ku©ESifhork',ESpfyg;wkdY\ csKyfjidrf;&m edAÁmefonf? eda&m"opöH? eda&m"opömwnf;? 'ku©y&dZmeaem? 'ku©ukd vnf; ykdif;jcm;í odaom? ork',yÜZ[aem? ork',ukdvnf; y,faom? eda&m"m&r®aPm? edAÁmefukdvnf; tm½kHjyKaom/ t&d,ra*¾g? t&d,r*f onf/ r*¾opöH? r*¾opömwnf;/ {0H? þokdY? pwkopö0aoe? opömav;yg; wkdY\ tpGrf;jzifh/ OóuúdwGm? 0dok'¨dtqifhqifh tm;jzifhwufí/ edAÁLwH? udavomjidrf;at;jcif;okdY/ ygykPmwd? a&muf\/ £wd? þokdY a&muf EkdifaomaMumifh/ £'H tmemyge ur®|meH? þtmemyge ur®|mef;onf/ tómoyómo0aoe tbded0d|ó? xGufouf 0ifouf\ tvkdtm; jzifh xdrSKazm|AÁm½kHukd ESvkH;oGif;aom/ {uó bdu©Kaem? wpfOD;wnf; aom &[ef;\/ ,m0 t&[wm? t&[wåzkdvfwkdifatmif/ ed,smerkcH? 0#fqif;rSxGufajrmuf aMumif;aywnf;/ 4if;jyif-

tmeygeowdESifjynfhpkHvQif edAÁmefjrif

tmemygeówd bdu©a0 bm0dwm A[kvDuwm pwåma&m owdy|mae y&dyla&wd? pwåma&m owdy|mem bm0dwm A[kvduwm owåaAmZÑa*F y&dyla&EÅd/ owåaAmZÑ*Fg bm0dwm A[kvduwm 0dZÆm0drkwåð y&dyla&EÅd/ (Oy&dyPÖmo ygVd? pmrsufESm 124)

bdu©a0? cspfom;wkdY/ tmemygeówd-tmemyge owdy|mefukd/ bm0dwm?yGm;onf&Sdaomf/ A[kvduwm? Mudrfzefrsm;pGm yGm;onf&Sdaomf/ pwåma&m owdy|mae? av;yg;aom owdy|mef w&m;ESifh/ y&dyla&EÅd? jyD;jynfhpkHapEkdifukef\/  pwåma&m owdy|mae? av;yg;aom owdy|mef w&m;wkdYukd/ bm0dwm? yGm;onf&Sdaomf/ A[kvDuwm? Mudrfzef rsm;pGm yGm;rsm;onf&Sdaomf/ owå aAmZÑa*F? ckepfyg;aom aAmZÑifw&m;wkdYESifh/ y&dyla&EÅd? jyD; jynfhpkHapEkdifukef\/ owå aAmZÑa*F? ckepfyg;aomaAmZÑif w&m;wkdYukd/ bm0dwm? yGm;onf &Sdaomf/ A[kvDuwm? Mudrfzef rsm;pGm yGm;onf&Sdaomf/ 0dZÆm0drkwåð? r*fÓPf zkdvfÓPftxl;wkdYESifh/ y&dyla&EÅd? jyD;jynfhpkH apEkdif \/ 4if;jyif

        tmemygeonf wxkdifwnf;jzihf &[EÅmjzpfEkdif\/

rZÑdryPÖmo t|muxmteuf

£"? þomoemawmfü/ bdu©K? &[ef;onf/ tmemygeówð? tmemygeowdESifh/ tEk,kawåm? ,SOfonfjzpfí/ {umoae? wxkdif wnf;aom ae&mü/ edodaEém? aevsufomvQif/ oAÁmoa0? tvkH;pkH aom tmoa0gw&m;av;yg;wkdYukd/ acaywGm? Ukefap í/ t&[wåH? t&[wåzkdvfokdY/ ygykPmwd? a&mufapEkdif\/ wxm? Xkdxkdaom twkdif;/ toauúmaEÅm? ra&mufEkdifao;onf&Sdaomf/ r&Pumav? aocgeD; umvü/ oroDod? ormoDo&[EÅm onf/ a[mwd? jzpfEkdif\/ wxm? xkdqkdjyD;wkdif;/ touúaEÅm? ra&muf Ekdif ao; onf&Sdaomf/ a0'avmau? ewfjynfü/ edAÁwGm? jzpfí/ "r®uxdua'0ykwåó? "r®uxdu ewfom; \/ "r®H? w&m;awmfukd/ okwGm? Mum;emí/ t&[wåH? t&[wåzkdvfokdY? ygykPmwd? a&mufEkdif\/ wawm? xkdewfjynfrS? 0d&a'¨g? cRwfvGJcJh onf&Sdaomf? Ak'¨KyÜga'? bk&m;&SifwkdY \ jzpf&macwftcgonf/ tEkyaEém? rjzpfrMuHK cJhonf&Sdaomf/ yapöuaAm"ð? yapöuaAm"dÓPf udk/ opäd-ua&mwd? rsufarSmufjyKEkdif\? yapöuaAm"dÓPfudk/ topädua&maEÅm? rsufarSmuf rjyKEkdifao;onf&Sdaomf/ Ak'¨geH? yGifhawmfrlvwHhukefaom bk&m;&SifwkdY\/ or®Kcdbma0?rsufarSmufaomtjzpfü/ Am[d,aw¬&m-'a,m 0d,? Am[d,rax&f tp&SdonfwkdY\/ cdyÜgbdanm? vsifaom tbdÓPf&Sdaom/ cDPmoa0g? &[EÅmonf/ a[mwd? jzpfEkdif\/

        þtxufyg ygVdrsm;t& tmemygeonf &[EÅmtxd jzpfEkdif aMumif; ponfwkdYrSm ,kHrSm;zG,f r&Sdawmhay/ 4if;jyifvnf; a0bl q&mawmfbk&m;MuD; tm; &[EÅm[lí ,ckypöKyÜef b0üyif xif&Sm; ausmfMum; aeonf wkdYukd axmufí rodrvdr®maomoltcsdKYu tmemyge onf tm;xkwfí jzpfEkdifaom w&m; rsdK;r[kwfbl;/ 0dyóemqkdwm emr½ly y&dapä'-ÓPfxuf ykdí vkyfzG,fr&Sdbl;/ w&dyf&dyf w&G&G qkdwm 0dyóemtm½kH r[kwfbl;/ aoG;awG avawG wkd;acGYaewmawGom jzpfonf/ 0dyóem qkdwm ½SK&wm r[kwfbl;/ MuHpnfawG;awm pOf;pm; íMunfh? ,kHMunfvmvQif 0dyóem tvkyf jyD;wmyJ[lí ajymqkd-a[majym-a&;om; Muonf wkdYukd em;ra,mif rdMu ygap&ef owday;vkdufygownf;/

        txufyg tmemyge0dyóem enf;twkdif; þpmtkyfukd Munfhítm;xkwfvdkvQif ausmufqnfjrdKY a0blq&mawmf bk&m;MuD;xH oGm;a&mufí tm;xkwfMuyg? y#dywådMuD;yGm;a&; tzGJYcsKyf? trSwf39? 87vrf;? &efukefokdY vmvQifvnf; jyoí ay;ygrnf/ vlukd,fwkdif rvmEkdifvQifvnf; pmeJY ar;í tm;xkwfyg/ pmjzifhyif jyefí jyo ay;ygonf/ rnfolrqkd wu,fvkdcsifí txl; MudK;pm; tm;xkwf Ekdif rnfqkdvQif? vkHYv yg&rD tavsmufjzpfEkdifaMumif;&J0HhpGmwm0efcHygonf/

        ,ck a&;jyjyD;cJhaom a0blq&mawmfbk&m;MuD;xHrS &aom 0dyóemenf; onf0dyóemoufouf y&rwftm½kHwkdYukdom oefYoefY a&;jyoGm;&jcif; jzpfygonf/ tmemyge qkdwm 0dyóemtm½kHESifh orxtm½kH ESpfrsdK;pvkH; wGJíaeygonf/ orxtm½kH qkdwmu xGufav0ifavjzpfygonf/ 0dyóemtm½kH qkdwmu xGufav0ifav wkd; oGm; aomaMumifh jzpfay:&aomxdrSK Mud,moabmuav;yif jzpfygonf/ tpyxrü xGufav0ifav ESifhuif;í ESmoD;zsm;wGif xdrSKESifh uif;ívnf; xGufav0ifav onfrawGYEkdifyg/ xdrSKESifh uif;íxGufav0ifavrjzpfEkdifyg/ xGufav0ifavESifhxdrSK oabm uav;onf twlwl ,SOfazmf ,SOfzufjzpfí? wpfrsdK;jzpfw,fqkdvQif usef wpfrsdK; yg jzpf&ygonf/

        okdY&mwGif xGufav0ifavukd *½kpkdufí ½SKaevQif xdrSKoabm onf tm;enf;í &Hzef&Hcg rxif&Sm;ovkd jzpfwwfygonf/ xdrSKukd ykdí *½kpkdufjyD; ½SKaomtcg xdrSKu xGufav0ifavxuf ykdí xif&Sm;vm wwfyg onf/ okdY&mwGif xGufav0ifavwnf;[laom orxtm½kHESifh xdrSKwnf;[laom y&rwftm½kHwkdYrSm wpfckESifhwpfck ruif;Ekdif &um; xGufav0ifavukd *½kpkdufí orxvrf;ukd vkdufaom olrsm;onfvnf; MumMumtm; xkwf rd vQif ESmoD;zsm;ESifh cE¨mukd,fwGif xdrSK0dyóem tm½kHawGonfxkdufoifhovkd tvkdvkd ay:vmwwf ayonf/   ay:vmaomfvnf; 0dyóemtm½kHrSef; rodwwfMuí *½krpkdufí aysmuf ysuf oGm;wwfMuygonf/

        odaomolrsm;rSmvnf; orxukdom tvkd&Sdonfjzpfí xdrSK wnf;[laom 0dyóemtm½kHukd vspfvsL½SKvkdufojzifh aysmufysufí oGm;wwfMu\/ xdrSK0dyóem tm½kHukdom*½kpkdufí ½SKoGm;aomolrsm; rSmvnf; xGufav0ifavpaom ynwftm½kHrsm;ESifh awGY& wwf onf omvQif jzpf\/ awGY&aomfvnf; ynwftm½kHrSef;odí *½krpkdufbJ y&rwf tm½kHrsm; wpfrsdK;wnf;ukdom *½kpkdufí ½SKjrifojzifh ynwftm½kH rsm; avsmhenf; aysufysufoGm;wwfonf/ okdY&mwGif tmemygeukd quf vQuf tm;xkwfaeaomolrsm;rSm xdrSK 0dyóem oabmukdom *½kpkdufí ½SKoGm;onfqkdaomfvnf; trsdK;rsdK;aom orxedrdwf ynwf tm½kHwkdY onf jzpfay:í vmwwfonf/

b,fvkdjzpfay:vmwwfygoenf;[lrl/

orxynwf edrdwfrsm; ay:vmwwfykH

        tmemyge tvkyfonf xGufav0ifav ynwfESifhxdrSKy&rwf wkdYonf tpkHpkH jydKifwljzpf&onfjzpfí xdrSK0dyóemukdom tm½kHjyKí ½SKaeygqkdaomfvnf; xGufav0ifav wnf;[laom ynwfedrdwf tm½kH onf xif&Sm;í vmwwfonf/ xif&Sm;í vmwwfykHrSm xGufav0ifav wkdYonf tvkH; tacsmif;MuD; uJhokdYvnf;aumif;? t&Snftwkd uJhokdYvnf; aumif;? tckd;taiGYuJhokdYvnf;aumif;? xifívmwwf\/

        ESmoD;0\a&SY wpfxGm wpfawmif ESpfawmifavmufokdY a&muf oGm;ouJhokdYvnf; aumif;? ESmoD;0rS twGif;okdYvnf; vnfacsmif;rS &if0? csufwkdiftxd a&mufoGm; ouJhokdYvnf;aumif; xifí vmwwf \/ xGufav0ifav wnf;[laom tckd;taiGYawGonf wdrfckd; wdrfaiGYawG uJhokdYvnf;aumif;/ qGwfqGwfjzLí aeouJhokdY vnf;aumif;? qyfjym rSKefYawG uJhokdYvnf;aumif;? xifíjrifí vmwwf\/

        xkdYjyif xGufav0ifavwkdYESifhwuG vufvufvufvufESifh a&T csnf aiGcsnfrSKHuav; awG uJhokdY vnf;aumif;? rD;zGmuav;awGuhJokdY ykd; pkef;MuL;awmufouJhokdYvnf;aumif;? ykvJvkH;&GJvkH;uav; awG uJhokdYvnf;aumif; xGufvkduf0ifvkdufESifhvnf; jzpfaewwf\/

        þum; xGufav0ifavESifh twl a&maxG;vsuf jrif &wwf aom orxynwfedrdwfwkdYwnf;/ xGufav0ifavESifh uif;uGm vsuf awGY& wwf aom orxynwfedrdwfrsm;rSmrlum; tmemyge tvkyf ukd vkyfae &if; wpfae&m&mrS tMunfvkH; uav;rsm;uJhokdY t&G,ftrsdK;rsdK; ay:vm wmukd jrif&wwf\? vufESdyf"mwfrD; xkd;vkduf ouJhokdYvnf; jrifvm& wwf\? ae v Mu,f eu©wf wm&mponfwkdYukdvnf; jrif&wwf\/

        okH;q,fhwpfbkHü &Sdwwfaom opfyifawm awmif a& ajr ork'´&m tp&Sdaom ½SKarQmf cif; trsdK;rsdK; wkdYukdvnf;jrif&wwf\/ tcsdKY ½SKarQmfcif;rsm;rSm tvGefw&mrS om,m MunfEl;zG,f&m aumif;ojzifh tjrJyif Munfhjrifí om aevkdaompdwfrsdK; jzpfwwf\/

        xkdYjyif touf&Sdaom vl?ewf?jA[®m?e*g;?*VKef? *krÇmef?,u©?i&J? wd&pämef? jydwåm tp &SdonfwkdYuJhokdY aom oabmw&m;rsm;ukdvnf; jrif&wwf\/ 0dZÆm?aZmf*sD tp&Sdaom yk*¾dKvf wkdYESifhvnf;awGY&? pum;ajym&? "mwfvkH;"mwfjym; ponfwkdYukdauR;&?pm;& ponfwkdYESifhvnf; awGYMuHK&wwf\/

        xkdrQru avmuü&Sdwwfaom ouf&SdoufrJh t&m0w¬K ponf wkdYukdvnf; tqifoifhovkd awGY& wwf\/ awGY&onf qkdaomfvnf; tmemygeukd tm;xkwfolwkdif; ,ck a&;jy oavmufpkHatmif awGY&onf [k rqkdvkdyg/ wcsdKYvJ enf;enf;yJ awGY&onf/

        þokdY rsufpdjzifh jrif&ouJhokdY awGY&wwfaom oabmwkdYrSm ynwf edrdwf csnf;omvQif jzpfyg onf/ xkdokdYaom ynwfedrdwfrsm; teufrS ta&miftvif;ESifh jynfhpkH aom edrdwf vkH;wpfckckukd tjrJojzifh jrifatmifMunfh aernfqkdygvQif orx psmefvrf;twkdif; wuf íoGm;Ekdif \/ þuJhokdY psmefvrf;twkdif; wufoGm;ykHukd odvkdvQif uREkfyfwkdY y#dywåd MuD;yGm;a&; tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0aom 0dyóem yg&*lusrf;awmfMuD;wGif Munfhygav/

        tmemygeenf;jzifh 0dyóemvrf;ukd vkdufaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;tzkdY rSmrl ,ckazmfjyaom orxynwf edrdwf[loa&GYukdvspfvsLjyK&rnfomjzpfygonf/ vspfvsLrjyKrlí rufarm aevQif 0dyóemtEÅ&m,fjzpfvsuf 0dyóemÓPf rwufbJ aewwfonf/ ynwftm½kH rSeforQ bmukdrQ *½krpkduf&? ewfawG 0dZÆmawGESifh awGY& pum;ajym&? auR;arG;&wmukd pm;&? tMuHÓPf ay;oGm;wmukd Mum;&aomfvnf; rdrdukd,frdrd txifrMuD;&? aoG;rMuD;&? 0rf;rajrmuf&? trQa0vkdufyg? olwkdY wawG 0dyóemÓPfukd wkd;wufatmif vkyfray;Ekdifyg/ olwdkYESifh awGY&onfh twGuf rmefwufjyD; tvkyfawmif ysufwwfonf/

        okdY&mwGif pdwfaumif; ESvkH;aumif;ESifh trQa0arwåm ykdYvkdufvQif olwkdYu ykdí MunfndK ygvdrfhrnf/ tmemygeukd tm;xkwf&if; awGY&onfh ouf&SdoufrJh tp&SdonfwkdYrSm wu,f tppftrSefawGukd awGY&wmyJ [lívnf; trSefrqkdEkdifyg/ wcsdKYrSm tdrfrufawG awGY& ouJhokdY pdwftm½kH tavsmuf xifjrif&wmawGvnf; jzpfwwfonf/

        txl;owdjyK&efrSm 0dyóemw&m;ukd tm;xkwfaom a,m*D rSeforQwkdYrSm ouf&SdoufrJh tp&Sdaom ynwfedrdwfwkdYukd pdwftm½kHü awGY vQif ynwfawG[líom rSwfyg/ Mobmo tp&Sdaom ta&mif tvif; awGukd awGYvQifvnf; þoabmawGonf y&rwftm½kH r[kwf ojzifh vspfvsL½SKvkdufyg/ ta&miftvif; tqif;o@mef rSeforQ wkdYonf pdwftm½kHrSm ay:vmaomfvnf; xdawGYrSKoabmjzpfaom y&rwftm½kHukdom pGJpGJjrJjrJ oJoJrJrJ MuD; rvGwfwrf; tywfwukwf tm; xkwfí ½SKygav? okdYrSom 0dyóem vrf;rSefusí r*fÓPf zkdvfÓPfukd vsifvsiffjrefjref ajzmifhajzmifhwef;wef;MuD; a&mufEkdif rnfjzpfygaMumif; apwemaumif;jzifh owday;tyfygonf/

0dyóemppfwrf;

        ,cktcg 0dyóemtppfawG ay:vmovkd twkawGvJ &SdaMumif; owdjyKyg/ tppfqkdwm ypöKyÜeftckdufü ukd,fwkdifawGY&aom jrif Mum; eH vsuf xd odrSKwkdYwGif wpfrsdK;wnf;ukd jzpfap? ESpfrsdK;? okH;rsdK;? av;rsdK;? ig;rsdK;? ajcmufrsdK;? ponfwkdYukd jzpfap? 4if;wkdY\ jzpfysufrSKawGukdcsnf; ½SKjrif&atmif tm;xkwf&\/ ½SKonfhtwkdif; jrifvmawmhrS tedpö-0dyóem jzpf\/ tedpöEkyóem jzpfívmvQif'ku©mEkyóem tewåm-Ekyóem vnf; wpfqufwnf;jzpfvsuf r*fzkdvfxdatmif a&mufoGm;Ekdif \/ tJ'grS 0dyóem tppf jzpf\/

        0dyóemtwkqkdwm ½kyfemrf"r® ocFg&wkdY\ twdwftem*wf-ypöKyÜef taMumif; rsm;ukd pOf;pm;qifjcif awG;awmMuHqí ,laejcif;ukd ac:\/ þokdYaom tvkyfrsdK;rSm y&rwftedpöukd wu,fawGY&wm r[kwf? pdwful;MuHpnfrSKom jzpfaomaMumifh usrf;*ef wGif uvmy-oroe [k rdefYqkdawmfrl\/

        0dyóemtppfukd tm;xkwfaomolonf tm;xkwfoefvmvQif tedpöukd aumif;pGm awGY& aomtcg Mobmo tp&Sdaom ynwfedrdwf rsm;ESifh enf;onfjzpfap rsm;onfjzpfap rawGY&bJ rae&? awGY&rnf jzpf\? pdwful;rQjzpfaom uvmyoroeorm;rsm;rSm tedpöukd b,favmufyJ xifygw,fqkdayr,fh pdwfxifrQom jzpfaomaMumifh 0dyóemtppf r[kwf ao;í Mobmo b,fawmhrS rawGYEkdif/

        okdYjzpfí pdwful;MuHpnfí ,l&wm rSeforQ 0dyóemtppf r[kwf? uvmyoroeom jzpfygonf/ 0dyóemtppfqkdwm pdwful; jcif;ukd vTwfí y&rwf tedpöukd rawGYawGYatmif ½SKaejcif; onfomvQif 0dyóemtppfjzpfygonf/

        aomwmyefqkdwm 0dyóemtppfukd tm;xkwf&rS aomwmyef jzpfEkdif\? aomwmyeftppf jzpfw,fqkdvQif r*fÓPfzkdvfÓPfjzifh edAÁmef ukd wu,f rsufarSmufjyK&\/ edAÁmefukd wpfMudrfrsufarSmufjyKzl;vQif aemufxyfwpfem&Davmufjzpfap ykdí jzpfap? vkdíjzpfap? rdrdoabm &Sdoavmuf edAÁmefukd rsufarSmufjyK&ygvkd\[k t"d|mef NyKí 0dyóemukd cgwkdif;vkdyif tm;xkwf? awmifawmiftDtD ponfwkdYukd pdwfrul;ygESifh? þokdY 0dyóemukd tm;xkwfae&if; 0dyóemtm½kHwkdYukd vGefajrmuf vsuf edAÁmefukd tm½kH jyKrdvsufom; jzpfoGm;vdrfhrnf/ þokdY t"d|mefjzifh tm½kHjyKzl;rS aomwmyef tppfjzpfaMumif; pdwfcs&rnf/

        ,ck þusrf;ukd a&;jy&jcif;rSm vlwkdif;vlwkdif; &[EÅm t&Sifjrwf a0blq&mawmfbk&m;MuD;\ Oyedosukd tvG,fwulenf;,lrSwfom; aygufajrmufatmif ,ckcsufjcif; tm;xkwfí oGm;EkdifMuyg&ef &nfoef ½kd;&Sif; ESvkH;oGif;jcif;jzifhom a&;jy&jcif;jzpfygonf/

 

0dyóemq&mMuD;

trSwf39? 87-vrf;? &efukef (1975)

Last Updated ( Monday, 19 November 2007 )
 
Present Day - Places
Written by Dr U Than Sein   
Friday, 02 November 2007

 

Present Day - structures and places   The Mahabodhi Mahavihara (Mahabodhi Temple)

gaya3.pngA magnificent 54 meters high, the Mahabodhi temple, built with sandstone, is located at the place of the original Bodhi tree, where the Gotama Buddha sat for the enlightment and spent first week of deep meditation, after enlightment. Original temple was supposed to have been built by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (270-232 BCE).  King Ashoka frequently visited the Bodhi tree and inspired by the sermon given to him by his spiritual teacher Upagupta (Mogalliputta Tissa), who said:

 

"Here at the seat of enlightment, the greatest of the sage dispersed, and quickly repelled the forces of Mara, and here that peerless individual attained everlasting, exalted, Supreme enlightment." (Ashokavandana) King Ashoka built the first temple (chaitya) in the 3rd century BCE. Subsequent Kings and pilgrims to Bodh Gaya had built the temple and nearby structures. When the Chinese monk Fa Hien visited Bodh Gaya at the beginning of the fourth century CE, he did not mention seeing any temple.  It was not known who exactly built the present day Mahabodhi Temple, but probably built by Pala Kings around sixth century. When another Chinese monk Hiuen Tsiang visited the place in the seventh century CE, he had described the Mahabodhi Temple, substantially the same as it is today. Successive pilgrims from neighbouring countries, such as Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and China, made donations, constructed monuments and stupas, and renovated various structures in and around the temple. Between 10th and 18th centuries, a series of Myanmar kings sent emissaries to Bodh Gaya, made donations, built monuments and stupas, and also carried out repairs of the Temple.  Similarly, pilgrims from Sri Lanka, Nepal, Vietnam, China and other parts of India did the same. King Mindon of Myanmar, who had organized the Fifth Sangha Congregation, sent a mission in 1877 to Bodh Gaya to review and make repairs of the Mahabodhi Temple and also to build a monastery for accommodating Myanmar pilgrims. The monastery (Mahabodhi Rest house) still exists today near the Mahant's palace, and the two stone inscriptions describing the donations of King Mindon are also visible alongside the Myanmar temple fully occupied by Mahant's people.   gaya4.pngKing Mondon also built Kuthodaw Pagoda and surrounding stupas, as part of the traditional foundations of the new royal city, Mandalay, Myanmar, which also included a pitakat taik or library for religious scriptures, and also commemorating the organization of the Fifth Buddhist Synod in 1871. The Pagoda and its surrounding stupas formed the world's largest book of Buddhism, consisting of 729 large marble tablets with the Tipitaka Pali canon of Theravada Buddhism inscribed on them and gilted in gold. One more was added to record how it all came about, making it 730 stone inscriptions in total.

Anagarika Dharmapala (1864-1933) of Sri Laka visited Bodh Gaya in 1891 and stayed at this Myanmar Mahabodhi Resthouse for more than 2 decades to initiate an historic Buddhist movement to gain back the management of the Maha Bodhi Temple into the hands of Buddhists.  Anagarika Dharmapala established the Maha Bodhi Society, which flourished since then for disseminating Buddhism around India, Asia and the world. Throughout the last 30 years of his life, Anagarika Dharmapala ceaselessly strived to get back the tasks of restoring the rights of Buddhists to worship there and control the management of the Maha Bodhi Temple. Kings of Buddhist countries, eminent scholars and intellectuals from India and around the world began to speak out in support of the issue. It was only in 1949, the Bodh Gaya temple Act (Bihar Act XVII 1949, amended February 1955) was passed making provision for the setting up of a committee of four Hindus and four Buddhists to manage the affairs of the temple.  On 23rd May, 1953, the temple was finally handed over to the Government, through Dr S Radhakrishnan, the then Vice president of India.

 

The Mahabodhi Buddha Image gaya5.pngAs soon as someone enters the Mahabodhi Temple one would see at the end of the main chamber, a Buddha statue, looking at and smiling at you. This statue was initially found at the Mahant's compound and British archeologist General Cunnigham in late 1880s moved it to the present location inside the Temple. The Buddha image is about six-feet high and gold-gulited with the right hand touching the ground, and the left hand resting on his lap. This gesture, bhumiphassa mudra (earth-touching gesture), signifies Gotama Buddha’s enlightenment.  The Buddha image and its surroundings make a definite appeal that whoever seeing it felt the urge to bow.

In the middle of the Temple chamber, there is a remnant of Shiva linga that was installed around 9th century but taken away at the request of Anagarika Dharmapala and Myanmar pilgrims in the 19th century.   At the upper level of the main chamber of Mahabodhi Temple, there is another image of standing Buddha crowned and jeweled, supposed to be built around Pala period. Smaller statues of Buddha, two standing and two sitting, could also be seen on either side of the standing Buddha.

 

Bodhi Tree and other sacred places Around the Mahabodhi temple, the seven sacred places where Gotama Buddha spent a week each for meditating after enlightment can be found.
Last Updated ( Wednesday, 02 January 2008 )
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